Construction and Demolition Waste

In 2022, 21% of all waste landfilled in the TNRD & Kamloops was Construction and Demolition (C&D) Waste. Management of this waste stream is challenging, due to expensive costs of managing C & D materials, health risks posed to humans and the environment, and missed recovery opportunity of valuable divertible materials. Up to 95% of construction and demolition materials can be diverted from landfills through recycling and reuse with effective planning and waste management practices.

The TNRD Regional Solid Waste Management Plan (sections 3.2.1 and 3.2.2) stipulates that the regional district increase diversion of waste generated by construction and demolition activities.

Staff removing some asbestos in a post of transformerHazard Assessments

A Hazard Assessment must be completed prior to work commencing on a deconstruction, renovation, or demolition project to plan for the proper removal and disposal of hazardous materials. This foresight ensures workers, community members, and the environment are protected from potential risks.

Hazardous Materials, such as asbestos, must be disposed of in compliance with the Hazardous Waste Regulation and Environmental Management Act. For more information on identifying and disposing of hazardous materials, visit:

Hazardous Materials include, but are not limited to:

  • Abandoned Chemicals: Including paints, solvents, oils, cleaning products, flammable and combustible substances such as gasoline, pesticides, herbicides and medications
  • Asbestos: Found in spray-applied insulation and attic insulation, pipe insulation, stucco and cement siding, gypsum wall board and mud compound, plaster and plaster board, vinyl floor, linoleum floor and levelling compound, ceiling tiles, cement pipe
  • Crystalline Silica: Found in concrete, cement, brick, mortar, tile, composite products, masonry
  • Lead: Found in paint and surface coatings, stained glass, cast-iron pipes, batteries, cable and wiring casings
  • Mercury: Found in thermostats, switches and relays, fluorescent tube lights, transformers
  • Mould: Grows as a result of excess moisture in areas like bathrooms, kitchens, basements, areas around leaky pipes, around windows, in areas with poor ventilation such as attics and crawl spaces, or areas subject to water damage
  • Ozone-Depleting Substances: Including air conditioners, heat pumps, refrigerators, and other cooling equipment
  • Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs): Found in fluorescent lighting ballasts, power transformers, generators, and other power supply and management equipment


Solid Waste Management Planning for Projects

Solid waste management planning on job site and for projects at homes and businesses builds the foundation that ensures reusable and/ or recyclable materials are property handled. This prevents unnecessary and materials from being landfilled. A good solid waste management plan on site is proactive and determines how large amounts of waste will be managed in a timely and efficient manner.

Determine the types and quantities of materials that will be generated by your project. Factors to consider include building size, type, and previous disposal records from comparable projects. From here, you can also determine the various types of waste generated from a project such as clean wood, asphalt shingles, concrete, scrap metal, etc.

Now that you have determined what project materials you have and their quantities, it is time to figure out where your materials can go. It is important to determine whether a material can be reused, recycled, or disposed of. For additional support, please refer to the TNRD’s C&D Diversion Table.

Once you have figured out where project materials will be hauled to, it is time to decide how to get the materials to their destinations.

Hauling options can include:

Self-Hauling – This option can reduce transportation costs and result in lower tipping fees for residential haulers depending on the type of material. This may work well for smaller volumes of C&D materials.

Contracted Hauling Services – This option is typically the most convenient, especially for larger-scale projects. Any of the following questions may be relevant for you to ask hauling companies:

  • What size and type of bins do you offer? Do you have split bins? What is the corresponding price?
  • What materials do you accept and do you offer recycling options?
  • Do you offer job site recycling or educational resources such as signs?
  • Can you provide itemized invoices to document where and when volumes of material were received?

Tip: Consider doing phased hauling dependent on the stage of deconstruction which is being undertaken. For example, remove all of one type of salvageable/divertible materials such as asphalt shingles in one go and then move on to another material to encourage as much source separation as possible.

Now that you have determined your volumes, specific material types, disposal facilities, and the hauling option to best move your project materials, it’s time to formalize it in one document.

This document will lay out instructions for the site staff, haulers, and contractors. Designating a project Waste Management Plan can help educate site personnel, provide consistent information when questions or challenges arise, and ensure accountability for proper material sorting.

Now it’s time to put your plan into action by implementing your Solid Waste Management Plan on site.

It is important to track your progress as you go so you can make adjustments if necessary and keep track of invoices to stay on top of material volumes and costs /revenues.

Prevent contamination on-site by:

  • Ensuring bins are in a convenient location
  • Having clear signage indicating what goes where
  • Ensuring site staff and contractors have been educated regarding the project Waste Management Plan
  • Inspecting and removing any contaminants from bins regularly

Construction and Demolition Waste Disposal Information

Download the table below to find information on facilities that accept construction and demolition waste and on disposal costs, where applicable.

updated June 2024

Red bricks debris in construction metal waste container close up. Building demolition and remove.Deconstruction

When existing structures need to be removed from a location, deconstruction can drastically reduce the amount of construction and demolition waste being landfilled. Deconstruction is the piece-by-piece disassembly of a building’s components in order to facilitate the reuse of salvageable building materials. If your home was built before 1950, is well maintained, does not have water or fire damage, and is structurally sound, it may be a great deconstruction candidate.

Material Definitions

For a list of solid waste materials and material definitions, please review TNRD Bylaw 2681 which regulates solid waste disposal and recycling.

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